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init

Initialize a DVC project in the current working directory.

Synopsis

usage: dvc init [-h] [-q | -v] [--no-scm] [-f] [--subdir]

Description

DVC works best in a Git repository. This enables all features, providing the most value. For this reason, dvc init (without flags) expects to run in a Git repository root (a .git/ directory should be present).

At DVC initialization, a new .dvc/ directory is created for configuration, default cache location, and other internal files and directories, that are hidden from the user. This directory is automatically staged with git add, so it can be easily committed with Git.

The command options can be used to start an alternative workflow for advanced scenarios:

Initializing DVC in subdirectories

--subdir must be provided to initialize DVC in a subdirectory of a Git repository. DVC still expects to find a Git root (will check all directories up to the system root to find .git/). This options does not affect any config files, .dvc/ directory is created the same way as in the default mode. This way multiple DVC projects can be initialized in a single Git repository, providing isolation between projects.

This is mostly useful in the scenario of a monorepo (Git repo split into several project directories), but can also be used with other patterns when such isolation is needed. dvc init --subdir mitigates possible limitations of initializing DVC in the Git repo root:

  • Repository maintainers might not allow a top level .dvc/ directory, especially if DVC is already being used by several sub-projects (monorepo).

  • DVC internals (config file, cache directory, etc.) would be shared across different subdirectories. This forces all of them to use the same DVC configuration and remote storage.

  • By default, DVC commands like dvc pull and dvc repro explore the whole DVC repository to find DVC-tracked data and pipelines to work with. This can be inefficient for large monorepos.

  • Commands such as dvc status and dvc metrics show would produce unexpected results if not constrained to a single project scope.

The project root is found by DVC by looking for .dvc/ from the current working directory, up. With --subdir, the project root will be found before the Git root.

This defines the scope of action for most DVC commands (e.g. dvc repro, dvc pull, dvc metrics diff, etc.). Only dvc.yaml, .dvc files, etc. inside the sub-dir project are reachable by them.

If there are multiple --subdir projects, but not nested, e.g.:

.           # git init
├── .git
├── project-A
│   ├── .dvc    # dvc init --subdir
│   ...
├── project-B
│   ├── .dvc    # dvc init --subdir
│   ...

DVC considers A and B separate projects. Any DVC command run in project-A is not aware of project-B. However, commands that involve versioning (like dvc diff, among others) access the commit history from the Git root (.).

. is not a DVC project in this case, so most DVC commands can't be run there.

If there are nested --subdir projects e.g.:

project-A
├── .dvc        # git init && dvc init
├── .git
├── dvc.yaml
├── ...
├── project-B
│   ├── .dvc        # dvc init --subdir
│   ├── data-B.dvc
│   ...

Nothing changes for the inner projects. And any DVC command run in the outer one actively ignores the nested project directories. For example, using dvc pull in project-A wouldn't download data for the data-B.dvc file.

Initializing DVC without Git

In rare cases, the --no-scm option might be desirable: to initialize DVC in a directory that is not part of a Git repo, or to make DVC ignore Git. Examples include:

  • SCM other than Git is being used. Even though there are DVC features that require DVC to be run in the Git repo, DVC can work well with other version control systems. Since DVC relies on simple dvc.yaml files to manage pipelines, data, etc, they can be added into any version control system, thus providing large data files and directories versioning.

  • There is no need to keep the history at all, e.g. having a deployment automation like running a data pipeline using cron.

In this mode, DVC features related to versioning are not available. For example automatic creation and updating of .gitignore files on dvc add or dvc stage add, as well as dvc diff and dvc metrics diff, which require Git revisions to compare.

DVC sets the core.no_scm config option value to true in the DVC config when initialized this way. This means that even if the project is tracked by Git, or if Git is initialized in it later, DVC will keep operating detached from Git in this project.

Options

  • -f, --force - remove .dvc/ if it exists before initialization. Will remove any existing local cache. Useful when a previous dvc init has been corrupted.

  • --subdir - initialize the DVC project in the current working directory, even if it's not the Git repository root. (If run in a project root, this option is ignored.) It affects how other DVC commands behave afterwards, see Initializing DVC in subdirectories for more details.

  • --no-scm - initialize the DVC project detached from Git. It means that DVC doesn't try to find or use Git in the directory it's initialized in. Certain DVC features are not available in this mode. See Initializing DVC without Git for more details.

  • -h, --help - prints the usage/help message, and exit.

  • -q, --quiet - do not write anything to standard output. Exit with 0 if no problems arise, otherwise 1.

  • -v, --verbose - displays detailed tracing information.

Examples: Most common initialization workflow

Create a new DVC repository (requires running in the Git repository root):

$ mkdir mydvcrepo && cd mydvcrepo
$ git init
$ dvc init
$ git status
...
        new file:   .dvc/.gitignore
        new file:   .dvc/config

$ git commit -m "Init DVC"

Note that the cache directory (among others) is not tracked with Git. It contains data and model files, and will be managed by DVC.

$ cat .dvc/.gitignore
/config.local
/tmp
/cache

Examples: Initializing DVC in a subdirectory

Create a DVC repository in a subdirectory of a Git repository:

$ mkdir mygitrepo && cd mygitrepo
$ git init

$ mkdir project-a && cd project-a
$ dvc init --subdir

In this case, Git repository is inside repo directory, while DVC repository is inside repo/project-a.

$ tree repo -a
repo
├── .git
.
.
.
└── project-a
    └── .dvc
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