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External Dependencies and Outputs

Sometimes you need to stream your data dependencies directly from their source locations outside your local project, or stream your data outputs directly to some external location, like cloud storage or HDFS.

To version external data without a pipeline, see importing external data.

How external dependencies work

External dependencies will be tracked by DVC, detecting when they change (triggering stage executions on dvc repro, for example).

To define files or directories in an external location as stage dependencies, specify their remote URLs or external paths in dvc.yaml (deps field). Use the same format as the url of of the following supported dvc remote types/protocols:

  • Amazon S3
  • Microsoft Azure Blob Storage
  • Google Cloud Storage
  • SSH
  • HDFS
  • HTTP
  • Local files and directories outside the workspace


Let's take a look at defining and running a download_file stage that simply downloads a file from an external location, on all the supported location types.

See the Remote alias example for info. on using remote locations that require manual authentication setup.

$ dvc stage add -n download_file \
          -d s3://mybucket/data.txt \
          -o data.txt \
          aws s3 cp s3://mybucket/data.txt data.txt
$ dvc stage add -n download_file \
          -d azure://mycontainer/data.txt \
          -o data.txt \
          az storage copy \
                     -d data.json \
                     --source-account-name my-account \
                     --source-container mycontainer \
                     --source-blob data.txt
$ dvc stage add -n download_file \
          -d gs://mybucket/data.txt \
          -o data.txt \
          gsutil cp gs://mybucket/data.txt data.txt
$ dvc stage add -n download_file \
          -d ssh://user@example.com/path/to/data.txt \
          -o data.txt \
          scp user@example.com:/path/to/data.txt data.txt

DVC requires both SSH and SFTP access to work with SSH remote storage. Check that you can connect both ways with tools like ssh and sftp (GNU/Linux).
Note that your server's SFTP root might differ from its physical root (/).

$ dvc stage add -n download_file \
          -d hdfs://user@example.com/data.txt \
          -o data.txt \
          hdfs fs -copyToLocal \
                  hdfs://user@example.com/data.txt data.txt

Including HTTPs

$ dvc stage add -n download_file \
          -d https://example.com/data.txt \
          -o data.txt \
          wget https://example.com/data.txt -O data.txt
$ dvc stage add -n download_file \
          -d /home/shared/data.txt \
          -o data.txt \
          cp /home/shared/data.txt data.txt

You may want to encapsulate external locations as configurable entities that can be managed independently. This is useful if the connection requires authentication, if multiple dependencies (or stages) reuse the same location, or if the URL is likely to change in the future.

DVC remotes can do just this. You may use dvc remote add to define them, and then use a special URL with format remote://{remote_name}/{path} (remote alias) to define the external dependency.

Let's see an example using SSH. First, register and configure the remote:

$ dvc remote add myssh ssh://user@example.com
$ dvc remote modify --local myssh password 'mypassword'

Refer to dvc remote modify for more details like setting up access credentials for the different remote types.

Now, use an alias to this remote when defining the stage:

$ dvc stage add -n download_file \
          -d remote://myssh/path/to/data.txt \
          -o data.txt \
          wget https://example.com/data.txt -O data.txt

How external outputs work

External outputs will be tracked by DVC, detecting when they change, but not saved in the cache for versioning.

Saving external outputs to an external cache has been deprecated in DVC 3.0.

To define files or directories in an external location as outputs, give their remote URLs or external paths to dvc stage add -O, or put them in dvc.yaml (outs field). For supported external output types and expected URL formats, see the examples above for external dependencies.


Let's take a look at defining and running an upload_file stage that simply uploads a file to an external location.

$ dvc stage add -n upload_file \
          -d data.txt \
          -O s3://mybucket/data.txt \
          aws s3 cp data.txt s3://mybucket/data.txt

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